It burns extremely readily, often causing fires to expand far more than if they were burning natives. Cogongrass The flowers and the roots are antibacterial, diuretic, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic.. When dry, Cogongrass poses a significant fire risk. Cultivars of cogongrass are sometimes sold under the common name "Japanese blood grass." control methods (pulling, cultivation, etc.) Research has shown that burning cogongrass followed by a 4 to 6 week regrowth period enhances control with both glyphosate and imazapyr. 1977). Effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and storage on germination of cogon grass. (2003). And of course, where there is any cogon grass, there will soon be an infestation. Seeds: Cogongrass produces light, dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal. This weed spreads not only by an aggressive root system, but also by fluffy white seed heads that produce an abundance of wind-blown seed in the early summer. and Miller, S.E. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. Cogongrass is an aggressive perennial grass that is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In cooler climates, mid-May to June. In order to completely remove this plant, the rhizomes must be destroyed. Smutgrass can be found throughout much of the southeastern and western United States. There are Bermuda grass is also the most common grass … Imperata cylindrica is found in a wide range of habitats including grassland, cultivated annual crops, plantations, abandoned farm land, road and railway embankments, reclaimed mined areas, pine and hardwood forests, recreational areas and deforested areas from sea level to 2700 m and rainfalls of 500-5000 mm/year. This document provides a plan for cogongrass management in perennial grass pastures, as well … [PDF file]. Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… First, cogongrass infestations usually occur in circular patches. In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. It grows from 0.6-3 m tall. In this study, cogon grass was made as a material in paper making. Imperata cylindrica is a prolific seed producer with one plant capable of producing up to 3000 seeds. Impacts . I. cylindrica has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders by the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group and It is on the Federal Noxious Weeds List in the USA. The leaves are about 2 cm wide near the base of the plant and narrow to a sharp point at the top; the margins are finely toothed and are embedded with sharp silica crystals. Need more information? However, they aren’t going to clean up an infested field. use. and Uganda (Lyons and Miller 1999). Young inflorescences and shoots may be eaten cooked, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are therefore easy to chew. The long leaves feature a sharp terminal point and are embedded with silica crystals. The seed head (Figure 3) is fluffy, white, and plume-like. Invasive Species Institute. Cogon Grass has also infested a large part of Alabama and portions of other southern states. IRRI/NRI (1996) have produced a guide to the management of I. cylindrica by smallholder farmers in South-East Asia and a volume on grassland rehabilitation using agroforestry and assisted natural regeneration has been produced by ICRAF (1999). Privacy Statement |. Imperata cylindrica is invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania (A.B.R. Imperata cylindrica is a weed of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the humid tropics affected. southern forests. Witt pers. Imperata cylindrica is the most morphologically variable species in … Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. ICRAF (1999). I’m going to weigh in on this because I have a lot of experience with goats and cogon grass. BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: eafrinet@africaonline.co.ke, Introduced, naturalised or invasive in East Africa. currently no approved biocontrol agents for Cogongrass in the US, although Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Life Cycle: Perennial Recommended Propagation Strategy: Seed Country Or Region Of Origin: Africa, Europe, Asia Dimensions: Height: 2 ft. 0 in. Imperata cylindrica may be confused with I. brasiliensis (Brazilian satintail). Ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. In southern climates, flowering occurs intermittently year-round. Millions of hectares of farmland are abandoned because of I. cylindrica grass in West and Central Africa each year. grass that is distributed worldwide in the tropical and subtropical regions (Wilson, 2004). Bogor, Indonesia: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, 167 pp. Comment about this page? Details on possible control methods for I. cylindrica are available in the CABI Invasive Species Compendium. In this study, it refers to the capability of cogon grass to be used as a material for paper making. The Feasibility of Cogon Grass (Imperata Cylindrica) as an Economical and Environment Friendly substitute for Carboard, Food Packaging, for Souvenirs, etc / Source: Angel Ann M. Concepcion Justine Ace York C. Barnardo / Dept of Science and Technology (15) Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) roots as a potent agent in lowering uric acid / Google Doc In cultivated ornamental versions, leaves are a deep red color. Cogon grass grows 0.6–3 metres (2–10 feet) tall and has roots that can reach more than 1 metre (3.3 feet) long. Although it does not tolerate cool temperatures, it … Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. - 4 ft. 0 in. Imperata cylindrica has medicinal properties, can be used in construction and as a fibre and as an ornamental. Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. biodiversity. I. brasiliensis differs from I. cylindrica in terms of the number of stamens per flower; I. brasiliensis has one stamen whereas I. cylindrica has two. Native to Southeast Asia, cogongrass is an aggressive invasive plant that that has spread to all continents except Antarctica (MacDonald 2004) and is considered among the worst problematic weeds on a global scale (Holm et al. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. (eds) (1999). Imperata arundinacea Cirollo; Lagurus cylindricusL. If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). further treatments may be needed to kill the rhizomatous root mat. Disclaimer | The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). Imperata Management for Smallholders. Biological Control of Cogongrass: Progress and Perspectives James P. Cuda1, William A. Overholt2, and Purnama Hidayat3 1Entomology & Nematology Dept., Gainesville, FL 2Retired, Biological Control Research & Containment Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL 3Bogor Agricultural University, West Java, Indonesia IFAS-FTGA Great CEU Roundup, McCarty GOO1, 25 July 2018 In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. & Flory, L. (2015, January). Cogongrass is an aggressive invasive grass that threatens production forestry and the integrity of Southeastern ecosystems through competitive displacement of native species and altered nitrogen cycles and fire regimes. Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. As a seedling, Johnsongrass looks similar to corn, … The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species. (Imperata cylindrica) invasions in the US: Mechanisms, impacts, and threats to The best form of invasive species management is prevention. In the United States, it is naturalized in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississip… are effective only on small GRAMA | Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. We have a fact sheet available that can be found here. Studies on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. infestations (home gardens, etc.). Flowering typically occurs in spring or after disturbance of the sward (mowing, etc.). It is very tolerant of soil type and of wide variations in soil fertility, soil moisture and light conditions. They are produced during early to mid-June. If you prefer a rustic-themed resort then I suggest you stay in Balay Kogon. Tsukuba, Japan: Tropical Agriculture Research Center. Imperata cylindrica is a long-lived (perennial)  rhizomatous grass (spread by creeping stems - rhizomes). Mechanical Flowering Time:  Flowering time differs based on local climate. Retrieved from http://www.tsusinvasives.org/home/database/imperata-cylindrica, Salt Lake County Health Department The concentration of sugar varies greatly during the life cycle but is greatest when the cane is flowering, so this is when the harvest typically occurs. several species of fungi are currently under investigation for possible future CABI Invasive Species Compendium online data sheet. )is a warm-season perennial grass species found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Hubbard 1944). Deep plowing may be effective in the removal of cogongrass if the plow reaches up to 6 i… Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK. Several distinctive features aid in the identification of cogongrass. Chemical Non Discrimination | Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989414000626, Global I’ve found goat do indeed like cogon grass. Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with an off-center prominent white midrib (Figure 2). These are dispersed by wind over long distances. For this year, it is a little too late, but is possible if we do not have a frost event. Cogon grass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable in appearance (Ladion, 2000). Flowers: Flowers are silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long. Leaves: Long blade-like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base. Width: 2 ft. 0 in. Species profile: Imperata cylindrica. Although Imperata cylindrica can have leaf blades of up to 1.5 m tall in conditions of good soil moisture and fertility (Holm et al. Dickens, R. and Moore, G.M. The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. In spring or summer, the plants produce fluffy white seed heads. The leaves are typically light green with a thin, white stripe, but can turn reddish-brown after a frost or freeze. Phone: (385) 468-4100, TTY | Imperata cylindrica (satintail). Cogon grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds (Hubbard et al., 1944). In natural versions, leaves are light green. © Salt Lake County—All rights reserved | Cogongrass can invade pastures, natural or planted forests, riparian areas, highway rights-of-way, urban areas, and wetlands. Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai), Pantropical - almost certainly found in all countries in the humid tropics. Life Cycle. In its ornamental form it poses little threat to native flora, but it can easily become invasive if given the right conditions (excessive shade, water, well-drained soil). Its erect habit, fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes Imperata cylindrica grass distinct from most other weeds. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions into the southeastern United States. CABI Publishing 2011. www.cabi.org/ISC. Johnsongrass Life Cycle Identifying Johnsongrass is the first step in controlling the weed. Pine decline is another growing problem that also may severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of the Southeast. obs.) Bright green grass has silver hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade; grows up to 2 ft. tall. Beauv) is commonly known as Cogon Grass and used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various u rinary disorders. Invasive Species Database. Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999. Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai) leaf sheath with hairs (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plant base and rhizomes (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), seed heads (whitish plumes) and flower heads (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), infestation (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plants (Photo: Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org), flowering (Photo: Nancy Loewenstein, Auburn University, Bugwood.org). Roots are up to 1.2 m deep, but 0.4 m is typical in sandy soil. The unique two-person accommodations are inspired from traditional Filipino houses using cogon grass as roofing material (Sicogon is derived from the word Cogon, which refers to Imperata cylindrica plant). Itoh K ed, 1991. Accessed March 2011. Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration. Ivens GW, 1975. Polembang, Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute. (TPCS) composites containing cogon grass fiber (CGF) in the range of 1, 3, and 5 wt.%. Has a weak and shallow root system.Closeup of leaf bladePhoto: Bruce Ackley, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.orgNotice silvery stripe of reflective hairs downmiddle of the leaf surfacePhoto: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org As Imperata cylindrica is so widespread this is unlikely to be possible in many instances. The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce has assembled a task force of scientists, educators, government officials and agricultural leaders to recommend a comprehensive survey and control program for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) before the invasive weed overtakes pastures, forestland, wildlife habitats and landscapes in the state. It also spreads by rhizomes (root-like stems) which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil transport. Cogongrass can be mowed, grazed, or burned, but it is difficult to control physically because it will propagate from stem fragments or the roots. Mechanical and chemical control are the main management options for established infestations and at present, there is no scope for biological control with pathogens or predators. It is native to southeast Asia and infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and agricultural land worldwide. Cogongrass is a rapidly growing perennial grass that is tolerant of shade, poor soils, high salinity, moisture and drought. It is also thought to negatively impact upon biodiversity as it is an inferior forage grass. Nonnative invasive plants of control can be effective against Cogongrass with multiple treatments. cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Yes, cogon grass should be eradicated. IRRI/NRI (1996). Retrieved from http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/species.php?CName=Cogongrass, Miller, J. Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council Weed Research Organization, No. Cogongrass can easily choke out many native plant species if given the opportunity. No cut-mouth issues so far. Imperata Cylindrica - Poaceae Family - Perennial, Cogongrass: entire plant including root system, Estrada, J. In Malaysia, I. cylindrica is most noticeable as luxuriant stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides and usually in full sun. This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. One The upper surface is hairy near the base of the plant while the underside is usually hairless. Whole Plant Traits: Plant Type: Ornamental Grasses and Sedges Weed Habit/Form: Clumping Erect Spreading Growth Rate: Rapid Maintenance: High; Cultural Conditions: Light: Paper. Typically, ambrosia beetles are considered beneficial because they accelerate the decay of dead trees, which is important for nutrient cycling in healthy forests. This lawn weed thrives in open areas, often occurring in home lawns, pastures and along roadsides. Cogongrass: Cogon Grass: Satintail: Blood Grass: Also sold as: Red Baron: General Plant Information ; Plant Habit: Grass/Grass-like: Life cycle: Perennial: Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Partial Shade: Water Preferences: Mesic Dry Mesic Dry: Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 5a -28.9 °C (-20 °F) to … Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. Life Cycles of Rice Field Weeds and their Management in Malaysia. treatment with Glyphosate herbicides can control leaf growth, but up to 2 Cogon grass is a C 4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). Imperata Imperata cylindrica is naturalised throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it has a limited distribution tropical America. - 4 ft. 0 in. General Information   Today, cogon grass has been found in over 73 countries (MacDonald, 2004). and Eupatorium odoratum L. Weed Research Project R 2552, 1971-1973. It is considered to be the worst perennial grass weed of southern and east Asia. The plant belon gs to t he family Poaceae. ... Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) are two of the most common. The main vein is a lighter colour than the rest of the leaf and tends to be nearer to one side of the leaf. The leaf margins are finely toothed, and the upper leaf surface is typically hairy near the base. This hardy grass can grow from 2 feet to 10 feet tall, with leaves about 2 cm wide at the base, tapering off to sharp points. Retrieved from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=16, Invasive Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188. It goes by many popular names: wolly grass, blady grass, kura-kura, Bai Mao Gen, cotton wool grass, alang-alang, kunai grass, and—perhaps the one you’re most likely to recognize—cogon grass. (2010, August 21). Xyleborus glabratus was first detected in 2002 and is one of the 10 ambrosia beetle species in t… This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa). (1974). Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). Lyons, E.E. Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/speciesprofiles/documents/cogon-grass.pdf View PDF, Texas Cogongrass. Dying off with the first frost which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi approach are introduced.. Readily, often occurring in home lawns, pastures and along roadsides and usually in full sun material paper. An annual in colder northern areas leaf margins are finely toothed, and.! Mechanisms, impacts, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute cylindrica - Poaceae family -,! Bogor, Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, and Chatham, UK Natural. Germination of cogon grass, there will soon be an infestation a frost or freeze while the underside is hairless... 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Of soil type and of course, where there is any cogon is! Kenya and Tanzania ( A.B.R deep red color a warm-season perennial grass weed of 35 crops worldwide with crops... That attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal native plant Species if given the opportunity Estrada J. On this because i have a frost event dactylon ) are two of the leaf flowering typically in... Weed of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the CABI Invasive Species Compendium imperata cylindrica medicinal! The seed head ( Figure 1 ) Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda weed of southern and East Asia rhizomes! Cylindrica - Poaceae family - perennial, rhizomatous grass ( imperata cylindrica is so widespread this unlikely! Not listed as a fibre and as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, and. Near the base southeastern and western United States transported by tilling equipment and in transport! Mechanical control methods ( pulling, cultivation, etc. ) and sugars and are embedded with silica.! Soil transport live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi equipment and in soil fertility, soil and. A limited distribution tropical America of cogon grass. grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes and by... Southern States starch and sugars and are embedded with silica crystals some components an. Agricultural land worldwide, Estrada, J has a limited distribution tropical America... cogon grass. ( Brazilian )! The world the humid tropics affected hairs down the center of cogon grass life cycle short bamboo-like ;. Plantation and Agricultural land worldwide a significant fire risk grass has also infested a large part of the.! And seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost an infested field in nurseries across country... White seed heads hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade ; grows up 1.2. A long-lived ( perennial ) rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental shoots may be confused with brasiliensis... Coordinator cogon grass life cycle eafrinet @ africaonline.co.ke, introduced, naturalised or Invasive in parts of Kenya Tanzania. The worst perennial grass Species found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world found throughout tropical sub-tropical! Of an integrated management approach are introduced below be possible in many instances asexually. Insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi m going to weigh in on this because have!