4 | Pennsylvania Native Trees and Shrubs Lancaster County Planning Commission Terms Alluvium soil: loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock), or sediments, eroded, deposited, and reshaped by water in some form in a non-marine setting. In Pennsylvania, the clearing for farming and cutting trees for commercial uses that began with the first European arrivals had, by 1900, reduced the forest cover from 90-95 percent of the land area to 32 percent. The state distribution maps in the species info boxes below are from the USDA NRCS PLANTS Database at plants.usda.gov.In instances where state specific maps are unavailable, the US distribution map will be used in its place. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, there are 134 native and 62 introduced species of trees found in the state. The gypsy moth, which spread into the state following its accidental release in eastern Massachusetts in 1869, reduced the importance of oaks through preferential feeding on members of the genus Quercus. Some of the same trees that are native to Delaware can also be found in Pennsylvania, as we are close neighbors. Charcoal making was another forest industry that thrived before the discovery of coal as a fuel. In areas near early iron furnaces, colliers cut trees (preferably oak or chestnut) and stacked them in conical piles built in the woods. Trees of Pennsylvania All 40; Taxonomy; 30 Flowering Plants Subphylum Angiospermae; 10 Conifers Class Pinopsida; Search. Eighteen thousand years ago the northeastern and northwestern corners of the state were covered with ice, and tundra and boreal forests covered the rest of the state. Dutch elm disease and dogwood anthracnose have taken their toll. Cutting Down the TreesAs European settlers claimed the land, taming the wilderness meant cutting down trees and eradicating some forest wildlife, especially large predators, in order to make room for farms, towns, and villages and to assure the safety of pioneer families and their livestock. With seasonal pruning it can be formed into an effective screen or hedge plant. Heart's Content, also in the Allegheny National Forest, has 100 acres of old growth hemlock-white pine forest. We are an all volunteer, member based, non-profit organization. The 65 nonnative trees included in this book are species that have spread into our native forests or other natural habitats. Fall 2020 Photo Contest Winner. The most recent invader, hemlock woolly adelgid, is killing our state tree the Canadian hemlock in southern and eastern parts of the state. Full-Part Sun; Full-Part Shade; Shrubs & Trees; Shrubs & Trees. The piles of logs were covered with earth and burned to produce charcoal that was then hauled by wagon to the iron works. Riparian areas throughout the state, where periodic flooding is a limiting factor, are characterized by sycamore, silver maple, box-elder, American elm, red elm, black willow, green ash, black ash, black walnut, and red maple. The famous Revolutionary War frigate USS Constitution, “Old Ironsides,” was made of White oak. The northern hardwood forest occupies the northern third of the state and extends south at high elevations along the Allegheny Front. Too many deer—Over-abundant deer are a serious threat to the health of forests throughout the state. Living here, you see trees everyday, but when was the last time you really looked at the ones surrounding you? A grass substitute for dry, shady areas under trees. What wasn't usable as lumber was treated by slow heating and distillation in "chemical factories" that produced acetate of lime, wood alcohol, wood tar, charcoal, and gases. Native PA Species TREES for Stormwater Management in Erie County. There are approximately 2,100 native plants in Pennsylvania. Inflorescence red-purple in very early spring. Spreads by underground stolons and self-sows. Initially open land will be colonized by species such as eastern red cedar, tuliptree, aspens, or red maple that grow well in the high light conditions of open fields. . We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. The resulting scenes of devastation generated concern by groups throughout the state and led to the formation of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association. Forest SuccessionWith few exceptions, rainfall, temperature, and soil conditions are suitable for the growth of trees throughout Pennsylvania. In addition, at least 21 large native shrubs sometimes grow to tree size and form. A Brief History of Penn's WoodsThe land that greeted the earliest Europeans to arrive in Pennsylvania was primarily forested, broken only by rivers, occasional wetlands, and clearings associated with Native American villages. The rarest native species are designated by the Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory (PNDI) and protected under the Wild Plant Conservation Act. Early accounts of the landscape of the interior of Pennsylvania contain frequent references like this descriptive passage by Fortescue Cumming while crossing Tuscarora Mountain in 1807, "view to the westward, though extensive, was cheerless and gloomy, over a broken and mountainous or rather hilly country, covered with forests, chiefly of the dark and sombre pine . In the southeastern corner of the state, in a narrow sliver of the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province that parallels the Delaware River, coastal plain forests contain sweetgum, willow oak, southern red oak, and sweetbay magnolia. Wood products including barrel staves, lath, shingles, boxes, and kindling wood were produced in hastily built factories located in temporary towns that sprang up throughout the northern tier of Pennsylvania. Fall foliage red to red orange. You probably even see these in your own yard and don’t even know it. Plants Native to Western Pennsylvania. Gaining in popularity, Pawpaws have the largest fruits of native fruit trees. Others, such as American holly, sweetbay magnolia, southern red oak, willow oak, chinquapin, and short-needle pine, just reach the state from the south. Living here, you see trees everyday, but when was the last time you really looked at the ones surrounding you? Have you wondered what kind they are? Today, it is not unusual to come across old charcoal hearths, level areas about 40 feet in diameter, scattered throughout the forests in areas where charcoal making occurred. Major Forest TypesPennsylvania's climate, rainfall, and soil fertility support forest growth throughout most of the state with the exception of areas that are too wet or too rocky. What is a Tree?Growth—Wood—Bark—Growth patterns—Short shoots and long shoots—JuvenilityLeaves—Fall leaf colorRoots—Root partnersFlowers, fruits, and seeds—ConifersAngiospermsPollination—-Seed dispersalClonal growth, Chapter 2. Wood not needed for fuel or building material was often burned early in the process of clearing the land; after all, there was a seemingly unlimited supply. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles A second wave of timber harvesting focused on hemlock bark, which was used in the leather tanning industry. The mixed mesophytic forests, which reach their greatest development in the Smoky Mountains, just reach southern Pennsylvania. Learn More about PNPS. In the northeastern and northwestern corners of the state, in areas covered by ice during the most recent glaciation, peat deposits support forests with a northern character dominated by black spruce and tamarack. white oak 2. As early successional species modify the environment by increasing the organic matter and shading the forest floor, more shade tolerant species invade. Early lumbering—Tall, straight, and suitable for masts for ships, the eastern white pine was the first large-scale target of waves of loggers who assaulted Pennsylvania's forests. 2004 | 416 pages | Cloth $59.95 Botany / Ecology/Environmental Studies View main book page, Chapter 1. Combining plants that grow well in the same natural habitats will help create healthy, vigorous plantings. You are being redirected to the DCNR eLibrary. Height: 8-16". River birch occurs along rivers and streams in the eastern part of the state but not in the west. Elders of the Lenni Lenape tribe have certified the tree has been venerated for 480+ years. More non-native plants are introduced every year. Congratulations to Pete … One hundred and thirty five species of trees are considered native to Pennsylvania. Most of Pennsylvania’s forest lands fall into two types: Mixed oak forests cover about 54 percent of the commonwealth -- mostly in the south -- and include trees such as northern red oak, chestnut oak, shagbark hickory, red maple, and tulip poplar. The herbaceous layer is very rich and diverse. At the turn of the 21st century, about 1,300 species of non-native plants existed in Pennsylvania outside of … Development of a system of forest reserves, now known as state forests, began in 1897 with the acquisition of abandoned cut-over lands that were sold at tax sales. Others, such as chestnut and butternut, have become rare through the impact of insects or diseases. See more ideas about native plants, plants, wild flowers. We propagate and grow more than 80 species of perennial plants from local seed we collect in the wild. 2 Red Chokeberry--Aronia arbutifolia / Photinia pyrifoliea —E, J Native habitat: swamps, bogs, moist woods. This medium-sized tree is favored for its uniform, upright growth. Other accounts describe extensive grasslands and gallery-type forests in which one could "drive a carriage unhindered," apparently the product of Native Americans' regular use of fire to manage the landscape. The Sacred Oak is currently the biggest tree in Berks County and is on the Pennsylvania Forestry Association's Champion Trees of Pennsylvania website. Understory trees typically include moosewood, witch-hazel, mountain holly, and shadbush. State game lands, administered by the Pennsylvania Game Commission, contain another 1.4 million acres in the public domain. Rail beds were constructed up every hollow, far into forests unreachable when proximity to water was necessary to transport the logs to markets. Moist rich acidic soils. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, there are approximately 2,100 native plants in Pennsylvania. PH: 814-443-2991, Nate Shumaker Width: 1-2'. Shale barrens and limestone barrens of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province contain drought-tolerant species including red cedar, Virginia pine, table mountain pine, yellow oak, post oak, hackberry, and sumac. The "Great Clearcut"—The invention of the geared logging locomotive set the stage for the great clearcut of Pennsylvania's forests that took place between 1890 and 1930. Historically, the tree's lumber was important in making whiskey barrels and in ship building. Trees listed as endangered in Pennsylvania are balsam poplar, beach plum, southern red oak, willow oak, Shumard oak, and showy mountain ash. A campaign led by Dr. Joseph Rothrock, resulted in the formation of a Division of Forestry within the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture in 1895 and the appointment of Dr. Rothrock as the first Forestry Commissioner. Pennsylvania is home to a wide variety of trees, some living no where in the world, not to mention some of the oldest and longest living in the world. The Tionesta Scenic and Natural Area in Allegheny National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania includes the only sizable tract of old growth forest that remains in the state. Some of them such as Norway maple, tree-of-heaven, and empress-tree have seriously impacted remnant forests in urban and suburban areas. Oak forests dominate the southern two-thirds of the state. Pennsylvania native plants are plants that thrived in the area before settlement. Old photographs record the boom days at Masten, Golinza, Laquin, and many other sites that today are only names on a map, a few old foundations, or perhaps the site of a hunting camp. Before 1910, American chestnut was an important component of Pennsylvania's oak forests, but the accidental introduction of chestnut blight in New York City in 1904 resulted in chestnut's shift from widespread canopy dominant to minor status within just a few decades. Plant two for better fruit set. The cooling effect from transpiration and shading add to our comfort. Additionally, 1,300 non-native species exist throughout the state. Evidence exists that Native Americans managed vast areas of forest with fire to create open, gallery-type forests, encourage species they prized for food, and also to clear fields where they grew corn, beans and other crops. Influence of Native AmericansThe popular notion that European explorers and early settlers found a primeval forest free of human influence is inaccurate. IMAGE INFORMATION; Striped Maple Moisture: Med Sun: Part/Shade Hgt. Classified as threatened are American holly, umbrella magnolia, sweetbay magnolia, and common hop-tree. A colonial shrub species, grows from 3’ to 15’ tall, prefers full sun, low drought tolerance, blooms from April to July, white flowers, produces pear shaped red fruit that per- sists into winter. Lancaster County’s Pennsylvania Native Tree and Shrub guide has been developed to increase the understanding and awareness of residents and officials of the environmental importance of native plant conservation and utilization. Descriptions, Illustrations, and Distribution Maps, Alder — Apple — Aralia — Arbor-vitae — Ash — Atlantic white-cedar — Basswood — Beebee tree — Beech — Birch — Blackgum — Blackhaw — Bladdernut — Buckeye — Catalpa — Cherry — Chestnut — Chinese toon-tree — Corktree — Crabapple — Dogwood — Douglas-fir — Elm — Empress-tree — Fir — Fringetree — Ginkgo — Golden rain-tree — Hackberry — Hawthorn — Hemlock — Hickory — Holly — Honey-locust — Hoptree — Hop-hornbeam — Hornbeam — Juniper — Katsura-tree — Kentucky coffee-tree — Larch — Locust — Magnolia — Maple — Mimosa — Mountain-ash — Mulberry — Oak — Osage-orange — Pagoda-tree — Paper-mulberry — Pawpaw — Pear — Persimmon — Photinia — Pine — Plum — Poplar — Prickly-ash — Redbud — Sapphire-berry — Sassafras — Shadbush — Silverbell — Snowbell — Sourwood — Spruce — Sumac — Sweetgum — Sycamore — Tree-of-heaven — Tuliptree — Walnut — Willow — Witch-hazell, Chapter 4. Mar 16, 2018 - Explore Diana Silvestri's board "Native Plants Pennsylvania", followed by 122 people on Pinterest. Trees provide a renewable source of lumber, paper, nuts and chemicals. We consider the flora present at the time Europeans arrived in North America as the species native to the eastern United States. Trees are also beautiful and restful to look at, conveying a sense of pleasure and well-being. Home; About; Contact; Our Plants. Welcome to the Pennsylvania A-Z native species list. Big Trees of Pennsylvania Register. 494 Harvest Drive Rockwood, PA 15557 Like other green plants they utilize carbon dioxide and produce oxygen and sugars. The term climax forest was formerly used to describe the late successional stages of forest development. Sort Guide order; Alphabetical by display name; Alphabetical by scientific name; Grid Card. Fagus grandifolia. Many others have arrived subsequently through deliberate or accidental introductions from other parts of the world. Black or “Swamp” Ash. We have over 1000 trees listed across the state that are big locally, or are the biggest in the state. These forests have a dense layer of shrubs such as mountain laurel and black huckleberry. It can be used as an accent plant or as a backdrop for small flowering trees. This tree loves cool swamps, wet woods and bottomlands throughout Pennsylvania. By 1904 the system held about half a million acres; today the state forests total 2.1 million acres. Pennsylvania native trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous material, seeds. Deer have consumed the lower layers of vegetation including tree seedlings and saplings, shrubs, and herbaceous species. It also occurs further south on north-facing slopes and cool, moist ravines. Native Trees and Shrubs for Pennsylvania Properties. The timber industry remains an important part of Pennsylvania's economy, totaling nearly $5 billion per year and providing about 100,000 jobs. Pennsylvania is host to one national forest; the Allegheny National Forest contains just over half a million acres. The Value of TreesThe ecological importance of forests and trees to the well-being of the state is enormous. Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery, LLC 2415 Route 100, Orefield, PA 18069 Tel: 610/395-2570 Fax: 610/395-3546 E-mail: info@edgeofthewoodsnursery.com Web: www.edgeofthewoodsnursery.com Container trees, shrubs, perennials, grasses, ferns, and aquatic plants. Their banana like fruits add interest to the landscape. Today many of the old railroad beds are the basis for a network of hiking trails. The major forest types are northern hardwood forest, oak-hickory forest, Great Lakes beech-maple forest, and mixed mesophytic forest. Platanus occidentalis . Fossil pollen and charcoal preserved in bogs and lake sediments all across the eastern half of North America, as well as many of the earliest written observations, record wide-scale use of fire by Native Americans to manage their landscape. The Forest TodayDespite dire predictions of Rothrock and others, Pennsylvania's forests did recover in the years following the great clearcut. Paw Paws are taprooted plants that transplant most successfully while dormant or nearly so. See more ideas about plants, native plants, perennials. Beech, sugar maple, and hemlock are so-called late successional trees because of their ability to grow and reproduce in low light conditions. You can submit trees for consideration for champion status to this website. An introduced or non-native plant is one that has been brought into the state to become established in the wild. Trees dominate the landscape and provide habitat structure for a multitude of other plants, animals, invertebrates, and microorganisms, thereby protecting biological diversity. An iron furnace required 20,000-35,000 acres of forest to support it on a sustainable basis. On drier upper slopes and ridge tops throughout the central Pennsylvania, oak forests are dominated by white, black, and chestnut oak are common. Audubon Pennsylvania . While those are the most common trees of Pennsylvania there are dozens of trees you will likely see in a walk in the woods. Menu. To learn more about the native plants we currently offer, select the appropriate native plant type. The current owner, a horticulturist, places the tree's age at approximately 700 years. Quercus alba. Native wildflowers, grasses, sedges & ferns Keystone Wildflowers provides a variety of Pennsylvania native plants, including wildflowers, ferns, grasses and sedges, shrubs, vines and trees. ISA Certified Arborist® By far, however, the largest proportion (70 percent) of forested land in the state is privately owned. The railroad logging era, as it is known, allowed loggers to reach the vast interior of the state's forests. Rare SpeciesThe abundance of individual tree species varies greatly from those that are found throughout the state in a variety of habitats such as red maple, beech, and red oak, to those that are very limited in their occurrence. : 15-20' Color: Yellow Bloom: April-May Plant Community: A Young trees-distinctive striped bark: Sugar Maple Moisture: Med Sun: Full/Part Hgt. It is one of the most valuable timber trees, and often planted for ornamental purposes in open spaces. The white oak is a widespread forest tree in Pennsylvania and can reach 80 to 1,000 feet high. Appears as a tuft of grass. .". Wild black cherry reaches its best development in this zone, especially in the northwestern part of the state. Never needs cutting unless to tidy. Native vs. introduced species—Native species are defined as those that were here before the first Europeans arrived. Serpentinite rock, which occurs in a band of outcrops stretching across southern Delaware, Chester, and Lancaster counties, supports forests of pitch pine or Virginia pine, coupled with red cedar, scrub oak, blackjack oak and sassafras. They protect the soil and facilitate ground water recharge by reducing runoff and erosion. A small tree can bring beauty and diversity into your yard while taking up very little space. Others including corktree, bee-bee tree, callery pear, and mimosa are just beginning to show invasive tendencies. The spotted lanternfly, a brightly colored red and black moth-like insect and one of the latest invaders, landed in Pennsylvania’s Berks County around 2012 and has munched its way across 13 counties, threatening grapes, orchards and hardwood trees. Oak forests include red oak-mixed hardwood type on lower slopes where red and white oaks occur mixed with tuliptree, red maple, and hickories. We have listed them by scientific name because it is a constant and does not vary region to region or person to person. Thanks to all for your continued support of this program. However, that forest is a fairly recent product of the geological evolution of Pennsylvania's landscape. Clearcutting was frequently followed by fires; started by sparks from the railroads, the fires burned rapidly and fiercely through the slash left after logging. American sycamore 3. Revealingly, later travelers in these same regions described a forested landscape apparently due to successional growth. Oak and other hardwoods are also important. Fencing to exclude deer is now a standard practice on state forest lands when timber is harvested; this is necessary to allow new trees to become established and grow beyond the browse line (the height deer can reach). Doc ID: 1737092 Doc Name: sf-PSU TreeID Program.pdf; Error Message: Trees are primarily identified by three things: their leaves, seeds, and bark. Understory trees include flowering dogwood, pawpaw, umbrella magnolia, redbud, and witch-hazel. Recent outbreaks of native insects such as elm spanworm, forest tent caterpillar, eastern tent caterpillar, and cherry scallop-shell moth have caused extensive tree death in some parts of the state. Rarity occurs for several reasons; some native Pennsylvania trees such as balsam fir, tamarack, and black spruce are northern species that are at their southern limit of range in Pennsylvania. This forest type is characterized by a mixture of hardwoods and conifers and usually contains beech, birch, sugar maple, hemlock, and white pine in the canopy. Red maple is a moderately fast-growing Pennsylvania-native shade tree best known for its brilliant red (sometimes red/gold) fall foliage. Pennsylvania Sedge (Carex pensylvanica) - PART TO FULL SHADE. Some particularly attractive varieties are the: Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) with its bright pink burst of color in spring; Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) is showy in the fall with brilliant red leaves. The oak-dominated forests that persist today, and native grasslands, most of which disappeared soon after Native Americans were ousted from the land, almost certainly owe their existence to traditions of large-scale burning among some groups of people for centuries or thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans. Commercial uses include flooring, whiskey barrels and boat building. In turn, trees that have National champion potential will be forwarded to American Forests. Research is ongoing to understand the cause(s) of a widespread dieback of sugar maple centered in Pennsylvania. Swamp forests along Lake Erie are the only locations where pumpkin ash occurs. Quercus rubra. northern red oak 1. 243979, Member of the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce. There are always opportunities to help, regardless of your level of expertise. There are always opportunities to help, regardless of your level of expertise. Trees with a more western distribution that reach Pennsylvania include Shumard oak, bur oak, shingle oak, and Kentucky coffee-tree. Apr 4, 2015 - Explore Lynn's board "Native plants of Pennsylvania", followed by 211 people on Pinterest. Hemlock logs were cut and the bark stripped off and hauled to tanneries located in many parts of the state near the source of bark. Fourteen other smaller fragments are preserved in state forests or state parks. Allegheny plum and pumpkin ash have been recommended for endangered status. The first European settlers found extensive clearings created by Native Americans in the Cumberland Valley, Penns Valley in Centre County, and the Wyoming Valley, as well as other sites. State and federal officials want to stop it, and they’ve spent about $20 million this year on research and eradication efforts. These forests contain tuliptree, sugar maple, beech, basswood, red oak, cucumber-tree, yellow buckeye, Ohio buckeye, white ash, and black cherry. Rarity occurs for several reasons; some native Pennsylvania trees such as balsam fir, tamarack, and black spruce are northern species that are at their southern limit of range in Pennsylvania. You can support us by becoming a member, making a donation, and/or volunteering . Authoritative, encyclopedic, lavishly illustrated guide to the trees of the state and region—from the Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Black walnut is one of the last trees to leaf out in the spring and one of the first to lose its leaves in the fall. American beech 4. The tree's acorns were made into a flour by Native Americans and are an important food source for wildlife. Others, such as American holly, sweetbay magnolia, southern red oak, willow oak, chinquapin, and short-needle pine, just reach the state from the south. Soil nutrient changes caused by acid rain appear to be part of the problem. Beginning in the 1760s, white pine logs 120 feet long and 4 feet in diameter (or larger) were cut in the hills of northeastern Pennsylvania, fastened together in huge rafts, and floated down the Delaware River to Philadelphia to provide masts for British ships. Learn More about PNPS. 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